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From several sources

3/9/20249 min read


From several sources


  1. A fortiori - With even stronger reason; which applies to a situation in which if one thing is true then it can be deduced that a second thing is even more certainly true.

  2. A posteriori - Relating to or originating by reasoning from the observation of facts.

  3. A priori - From what was before.

  4. Ab extra - From outside.

  5. Ab incunablis - From infancy.

  6. Ab initio - From the beginning.

  7. Ab intra - From within.

  8. Absoluta sentential expositore non indiget - An absolute judgment needs no expositor.

  9. Actio personalis moritur cum persona - A personal action dies with the person.

  10. Actiones legis Law suits.

  11. Actori incumbit onus probandi – The burden of proof lies on the plaintiff

  12. Actus nemini facit injuriamThe act of the law does no one wrong.

  13. Actus reus A guilty deed or act.

  14. Ad absurdum – To the point of preposterousness.

  15. Ad eundemTo the same level.

  16. Ad eundem gradumTo the same degree.

  17. Ad hocFor this purpose.

  18. Ad hominemRepresents an argument made personally against an opponent, rather than a logical argument against an issue.

  19. Ad idemOf the same mind.

  20. Ad infinitum Forever, without limit.

  21. Ad locum At the place.

  22. Ad nauseamTo a repulsive extent.

  23. Ad quaestionem facti non respondent judicesThe judges do not answer to a question of fact.

  24. Ad referendumSubject to reference.

  25. Ad valoremBy the value e.g. ad valorem tax.

  26. AddendaThings to be attached.

  27. Addendum A thing to be attached.

  28. Aedificare in tuo proprio solo non licet quod alteri noceatIt is not lawful to build on one’s own land what may be injurious to another.

  29. Aequitas legem sequiturEquity follows the law.

  30. Aequitas nunquam contravenit legemEquity never contradicts the law.

  31. AffidavitA sworn written statement usable as evidence in court.

  32. Agenda Things to be done.

  33. Alibi At another place, elsewhere.

  34. Allegatio contra factum non est admittenda An allegation contrary to a deed is not to be heard.

  35. Alter ego Other “I” or “Other self”.

  36. Ambiguitas contra stipulatorem est An ambiguity is most strongly construed against the party using it.

  37. Amicus curiaeA friend of the Court.

  38. Amicus omnibus, amicus neminiA friend to everyone is a friend to none.

  39. Annus horribilis A horrible year.

  40. Annus mirabilisA fantastic year.

  41. AnteBefore

  42. Ante meridiemBefore noon

  43. Arbitrium est judicium An award is a judgment.

  44. Assentio mentium The meeting of minds, i.e. mutual assent.

  45. Assignatus utitur jure auctoris An assignee is clothed with rights of his assignor.

  46. Audi alteram partemHear the other side.


  1. Bona fide: Sincere, in good faith

  2. Bona fides: Honest purpose

  3. Bona vacantia: Goods without an owner

  4. Boni judici est ampliare jurisdictionem: It is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdiction.

  5. Boni judicis est judicium sine dilation mandare executioni: It is the duty of a good judge to cause execution to issue on a judgment without delay.

  6. Bonus judex secundum aequum et bonum judicat et aequitatem stricto juri praefert: A good judge decides according to justice and right and prefers equity to strict law.


  1. Cadit quaestio: The matter admits of no further argument

  2. Causa proxima, non remota spectatur:The immediate and not the remote cause is to be considered

  3. Caveat emptor: Let the purchaser beware

  4. Caveat venditor: Let the seller beware

  5. Ceteris paribus: Other things being equal

  6. Circa: Around

  7. Cogito, ergo sum: I think, therefore I am

  8. Compos mentis: Stable, lucid, sane

  9. Consensu: Unanimously or, by general consent

  10. Consensus ad idem: Agreement as to the same things

  11. Contra:To the contrary

  12. Contra bonos mores: Against good morals

  13. Contra non valentem agere nulla currit praescriptio: No prescription runs against a person not able to act

  14. Conventio et modus vincunt legem: A contract and agreement overcome the law

  15. Coram non judice:Before one who is not a judge

  16. Corpus: Body

  17. Corrigenda: A list of things to be rectified

  18. Corpus delicti: The body, i.e. the gist of crime

  19. Crimen omnia ex se nata vitiat: Crime vitiates everything, which springs from it.


  1. Damnum sine injuriaDamage without injury.

  2. De factoIn fact.

  3. De jureBy law.

  4. De minimisAbout minimal things.

  5. De Minimis Non Curat LexThe law does not govern trifles (unimportant things) or law ignores insignificant details. Or, A common law principle whereby judges will not sit in judgment of extremely minor transgressions (offence, wrongdoings) of the law.

  6. De novoTo make something new.

  7. DictumStatement of law made by judge in the course of the decision but not necessary to the decision itself.

  8. Doli incapaxIncapable of crime.

  9. DetinueTort of wrongfully holding goods which belong to someone else.

  10. Donatio mortis causaGift because of death. Or a future gift given in expectation of the donor’s imminent death and only delivered upon the donor’s death.


  1. EstoppelPrevented from denying.

  2. Ex gratiaAs favour.

  3. Ex officioBecause of an office held.

  4. Ex parteProceedings in the absence of the other party.

  5. Ex post factoOut of the aftermath, or After the fact.


  1. FatumBeyond human foresight.

  2. Factum probansRelevant fact.

  3. Fraus est celare fraudemIt is a fraud to conceal a fraud.

  4. Functus officioNo longer having power or jurisdiction.

  5. Furiosi nulla voluntas estMentally impaired or mentally incapable persons cannot validly sign a will, contract or form the frame of mind necessary to commit a crime. or a person with mental illness has no free will.


  1. Habeas corpus – A writ to have the body of a person to be brought in before the judge.


  1. Ignorantia juris non excusatIgnorance of the law excuses not or Ignorance of the law excuses no one. In other words, A person who is unaware of a law may not escape liability for violating that law merely because one was unaware of its content.

  2. Injuria sine damnoInjury without damage.

  3. Ipso factoBy the mere fact.

  4. In promptuIn readiness.

  5. In lieu ofInstead of.

  6. In personam – A proceeding in which relief I sought against a specific person.

  7. InnuendoSpoken words which are defamatory because they have a double meaning.

  8. In status quoIn the present state.

  9. Inter aliaAmong other things.

  10. Inter vivosBetween living people. (especially of a gift as opposed to a legacy)

  11. Interest Reipublicae Ut Sit Finis Litium – It means it is in the interest of the state that there should be an end to litigation.

  12. Ius est ars boni et aequiThe law is the art of goodness and equity


  1. Jus cogens or ius cogensCompelling law.

  2. Jus in personamRight against a specific person.

  3. Jus in remRight against the world at large.

  4. Jus naturaleNatural law. Or in other words, A system of law based on fundamental ideas of right and wrong that is Natural Law.

  5. Jus NecessitatisIt means a person’s right to do what is required for which no threat of legal punishment is a dissuasion. Dissuasion means: the action or process of trying to persuade someone not to take a particular course of action. Question asked by one of you: I have a doubt about the maxim jus necessitatis. Does it come under section 81 or 87 of IPC? Answer: This is called the doctrine of necessity. It means a person doing a thing under compulsion of situation. It is not considered a wrongful act. It comes under the ambit of section 81 of IPC.

  6. Jus non scriptumCustomary law.

  7. Jus scriptumWritten law.

  8. JusLaw or right.

  9. Justitia nemini neganda estJustice is to be denied to nobody.

  10. Jus soliRight of soil.

  11. Jus sanguinsRight of blood or descent.


  1. Lex non a rege est violandaThe law must not be violated even by the king.

  2. Locus standiRight of a party to an action to appear and be heard by the court.


  1. Mala fide – In bad faith.

  2. Malum in se or Mala in se (plural) – Wrong or evil in itself. Or, Mala in se is ‘A term that signifies crime that is considered wrong in and of itself.’ For Example, Most human beings believe that murder, rape, and theft are wrong, regardless of whether a law governs such conduct or where the conduct occurs and is thus recognizably malum in se.

  3. Malum prohibitumIn a way opposite of Malum in se. It means ‘Crimes are criminal not because they are inherently bad, but because the act is prohibited by the law of the state.’For example, Jurisdiction in India requires drivers to drive on the left side of the road. This is not because driving on the right side of a road is considered immoral, but because the law says to drive on the left side and not on the right side.

  4. Mandamus – ‘We command’. A writ of command issued by a Higher Court to Government/Public Authority, to compel the performance of a public duty.

  5. Mens reaGuilty mind.

  6. MisnomerA wrong or inaccurate name or term.

  7. Modus operandiWay of working.

  8. Modus VivendiWay of living.

  9. Mutatis MutandisWith the necessary changes having been made, or with the respective differences having been considered.


  1. Nemo bis punitur pro eodem delictoNobody can be twice punished for the same offence.

  2. Nemo debet bis vexari pro una et eadem causaIt means no man shall be punished twice for the same offence.

  3. Nemo debet esse judex in propria causa or Nemo judex in causa sua or Nemo judex in sua causaNobody can be judge in his own case.

  4. Nemo moriturus praesumitur mentireA man will not meet his maker (God) with a lie in his mouth or in other words ‘No man at the point of death is presumed to lie.’ (This maxim is related to dying declaration)

  5. Nemo Potest esse tenens et dominusNobody can be both a landlord and a tenant of the same property.

  6. Nemo auditur propriam turpitudinem allegans – No one shall be heard, who invokes his own guilt

  7. Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine legeNo crime and no penalty without law

8. De minimis non curat lexThe law does not concern itself with trifles

  1. Nolle prosequiA formal notice of abandonment by a plaintiff or prosecutor of all or part of a suit.

  2. NovationTransaction in which a new contact is agreed by all parties to replace an existing contract.

  3. Nunc pro tuncNow for then. A ruling nunc pro tunc applies retroactively to correct an earlier ruling.

  4. Non Sequitur – A statement (such as a response) that does not follow logically from or is not clearly related to anything previously said.


  1. Obiter dictumThings said by the way. It is generally used in law to refer to an opinion or non-necessary remark made by a judge. It does not act as a precedent. In other words, Obiter dictum means “that which is said in passing,” an incidental statement. Specifically, in law, it refers to a passage in a judicial opinion which is not necessary for the decision of the case before the court. Such statements lack the force of precedent but may nevertheless be significant. Source: Britannica

  2. Onus probandiBurden of proof.


  1. Pacta Sunt ServandaAgreements must be kept. or Agreements are legally binding. In International Agreements it means ‘every treaty in force is binding upon the parties to it and must be performed by them in good faith.’

  2. Pari passuWith an equal step. Read more about it on Wikipedia.

  3. Particeps criminisA participator in the actual crime/partner in crime.

  4. Per curiam (decision or opinion) – By the court. In other words, The decision is made by the court (or at least, a majority of the court) acting collectively.

  5. Per seBy itself.

  6. Persona non grataA person who is unacceptable or unwelcome. Opposite of persona non grata is persona grata. Also, In diplomacy, a persona non grata is a foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country’s government.

  7. Prima facie – At first sight.

  8. PalimonyMoney which a man pays to a woman with whom he has been living and from whom he is separated. Palimony has slightly different meanings in different jurisdictions.

  9. Per curiamBy a court.

  10. Per incuriamBecause of lack of care.

  11. Prima facie – On the face of it.


  1. Quantum meruitWhat one has earned. or The amount he deserves. In other words, A reasonable sum of money to be paid for services rendered or work done when the amount due is not stipulated (specified, written down) in a legally enforceable contract. Source: Oxford

  2. Qui facit per alium, facit per seHe who acts through another acts himself. In simple words, It is a fundamental legal maxim of the law of agency. It is a maxim often stated in discussing the liability of the employer for the act of employee in terms of vicarious (indirect, secondhand) liability.

  3. Quid pro quoSomething for something.

  4. Qui sentit commodum, sentire debet et onusIt means he who receives advantage must also bear the burden.

  5. Quo warrantoBy what authority. A writ calling upon one to show under what authority he holds or claims a public office.


  1. Ratio decidendiPrinciple or reason underlying a court judgement. or The rule of law on which a judicial decision is based.

  2. Respondeat superiorLet the master answer. For example, There are circumstances when an employer is liable for acts of employees performed within the course of their employment. This rule is also called the master-servant rule.

  3. Res ipsa loquitorThe thing speaks for itself.

  4. Res JudicataA matter already judged.

  5. Res Judicata Pro Veritate AccipiturIt means that a judicial decision must be accepted as correct.

  6. Rex non protest peccareThe king can do no wrong.


  1. Salus populi est suprema lex – The welfare of the is the supreme law.

  2. Status quo – State of things as they are now.

  3. Sine die – With no day (indefinitely).

  4. Sine qua non“without which nothing”. An essential condition. A thing that is absolutely necessary. Basically a component of an argument that, if debunked, causes the entire argument to crumble.

  5. Suo Motu – On its own motion.

  6. Suum cuique tribuereTo each his own


  1. Uberrima fides (sometimes uberrimae fidei) – Utmost good faith.

  2. Ubi jus ibi remediumWhere there is a right, there is a remedy.


  1. VetoBan or order not to allow something to become law, even if it has been passed by a parliament.

  2. Vice versaReverse position.

  3. Vis majorAct of God.

  4. Volenti non fit injuriaDamage suffered by consent gives no cause of action.

  5. In other words, If someone willingly places himself in a position where he knows that harm might result, then he is not able (allowed) to bring a claim against the other party in tort or delict (a violation of the law).

  6. Vox populiVoice of the people. or The opinion of the majority of the people.


  1. Waiver – Voluntarily giving up or removing the conditions.